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Rhetorical Devices Used in Literary Logic

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#91 Rufus Tullius

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Posted 19 July 2017 - 12:38 PM

Juxtaposition is a fancy rhetorical effect used to create contrasts when two or more ideas are compared to one another. It can be used both literally and figuratively. Developing characters to employ this technique is a common writing style. It helps to create subtexts of meaning between them. The good cop, bad cop routine is a simple example. It shows the differences or similarities in their connection and controls the interest of the reader or audience. Adding more elements to a scene will increase the meaning again and can change depending on the order of the ideas or images presented. Timing and space are important to consider. 
Elements to help create juxtaposition include color, size, age, gender, race, height, and personality. Meanings can be found in private languages and strange imagery through the use of symbolism. Every element can have multiple meanings determined by its juxtaposition. This technique is used extensively in media advertising using both words and images.
List of Juxtaposition elements:
- War and Peace
- Authority and free will
- Modern and old fashioned
- Light and dark contrast
- Love and separation
- Bricks and metal
- Friendship and loneliness
- Adults and children
- Good and bad
- Law and rebellion
- Cool and uncool
- Young and old
- Stereotypes and reality
- Fat and skinny
- Danger and Safety
- Big and small
- Red and blue
- Smart and dumb
- Nature and Industrial
- Strong and weak
Ad placement is important...
Do you feel like eating at Mcdonalds after seeing that image?

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Posted 19 July 2017 - 02:00 PM

Another humorous rhetorical device :
Tmesis - is a verbal or literary special effect where you insert a word between another word or phrase. This involves breaking down the word or phrase into its parts and inserting the new word between them. Usually in the middle. Words with three or more syllables are most commonly used.

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#93 Rufus Tullius

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Posted 20 July 2017 - 12:28 PM


Alliteration is a great technique to add style in speech. It occurs when words are strung together using the same consonant sound close together. They can be can quite fancy and interesting because it requires more emphasis on the sounds produced. They add a musical and poetic essence to phrasing and they're rhythmic in nature. Making them easy to learn because it creates a flow in the sentence structure. 
Alliteration is used extensively in the marketing industry because they make the brand names pop with clarity and are easy to remember. It's best to use them sparely as they tend to get monotonous. Stringing 2 words together in this way can strengthen an idea for some short sharp shocks.
When it's really well done they really add some kick....





Playing with morphemes for their sound effects can be either harsh sounding or sweet. Using words and phrases with soothing sounds can create a pleasing effect to the listener. Let's look at the use of sounds in language.
One example is Euphony: This uses pleasing vowels and nasal consonants to create harmony. Using it combined with Alliteration creates a wider range of melodic effects. Poetry and prose are good mediums to uses these devices in. The use of long vowels builds on the melody. Pleasing pronunciations produce poetic harmony. They sooth the speech and carry the language forward with effective commentary. 
Cacophony, on the other hand, is harsh and explosive in its delivery. Words that hiss, crack, and screech using heavy consonants bend the ear with unpleasant discord. Its use is usually for descriptions of unpleasant situations. 



The sounds of speech have many repetitions of consonants. The fickle pitter patter of short, sharp shocks within a phrase can really kick up an impact. This is defined as CONSONANCE. Assonance occurs when the same vowel sounds are repeated close together.
Common sounding consonants can be anywhere in the word when used in a rhyming scheme, not just at the end of words. Consonance contrasts alliteration as it repeats only consonant sounds. It works best in poetic writing although it can be found in prose. Tweets, headlines, and copywrite are good places to insert consonance because it helps to make a phrase pop. It has a lyrical quality that can turn a stiff expression into a crackling head grabber. Good because it tends to underscore the emotions where words cannot. Making it appealing to the listener with its rhyming effect.
DISSONANCE is using harsh sounding words deliberately to create an inharmonious effect. Dissonance is heard everywhere in the day of a life: The revvv of an engine traveling down the street, the sounds of children screaming in the distance, even a jet blowing off trails in the air from above. All these contribute to the everyday dissonance we all hear and have become normalized too. 
In music it creates tension that can only be resolved by using a consonant root. It adds interest and purposefully seeks to generate discomfort and shock. Creating awkward sounds makes it uncomfortable to the listener. Needing a consonant to resolve any issues.

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#94 Rufus Tullius

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Posted 21 July 2017 - 12:59 PM

Meiosis is defined as using little understatements to minimize the reputation of somebody. Especially when used in giving the impression that something is weak or tawdry in importance. It's a method of speech to give information that diminishes one emotional response in order to insert another in its place. Its effect produces sarcasm and sardony with its descriptions of mannerisms and tone. It's the opposite of hyperbole because it's the kind of irony that deliberately makes the object of ridicule appear foolish and misleading. 
Meiosis is closely related to Litotes. These are figures of speech using an understatement in which "an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite" using double negatives or opposing statements. Such as "this is no mean feat". Litotes use understatement to high light importance rather than minimize it. It attracts attention to an idea by ignoring it. Avoiding to name the object straightforward by using discretion. Talking about something negatively can sometimes be the best way to make it appear positive. 

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Posted 25 July 2017 - 06:07 AM


Hyperbole is a figure of speech involving an exxagerated idea to accentuate a real situation. It's an amusing device used to create contrast between a normal desciption and one with an overstatement. 
Not only can hyperboles be found in our oral statements and in literature but they're also important in media ad campaigns. Visual hyperboles have become commonplace on the TV screen. They're amplified graphically to encourage people to buy products. The research in this area has been sparse.





Adynaton meaning: impossible situations; magnified exaggeration; extreme hyperbole.



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Posted 28 July 2017 - 05:27 PM

Thanks for this. It helps!

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#97 Feathers


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Posted 28 July 2017 - 05:32 PM

Thanks for this. It helps!


You are welcome....the more you know! 




The Trivium Method - not to be mistaken for the Classical Trivium - is a MENTAL ANTIVIRUS. In this interview, Jan adresses the in and outs of the Trivium and the Quadrivium as the 'Seven Liberal Arts' through the history of rise and fall of different peoples of the world up to this day.
The Trivium method: (pertains to mind) – the elementary three.
General Grammar, Aristotelian Logic, and Classical Rhetoric comprise the first three rules-based subjects of the 7 Liberal Arts and Sciences. As these disciplines are learned and practiced together, they form the overarching, symbiotic system for establishing clarity and consistency of personal thought called the Trivium.

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Posted 28 July 2017 - 05:54 PM

The Prussian (German) Educational System
The educational system was divided into three groups. The elite of Prussian society were seen as comprising .5% of the society. Approximately 5.5% of the remaining children were sent to what was called realschulen, where they were partially taught to think. The remaining 94% went to volkschulen, where they were to learn “harmony, obdience, freedom from stressful thinking and how to follow orders.” An important part of this new system was to break the link between reading and the young child, because a child who reads too well becomes knowledgable and independent from the system of instruction and is capable of finding out anything. In order to have an efficient policy-making class and a sub-class beneath it, you’ve got to remove the power of most people to make anything out of available information.
This was the plan. To keep most of the children in the general population from reading for the first six or seven years of their lives.
Now, the Prussian system of reading was originally a system whereby whole sentences (and thus whole integrated concepts) were memorized, rather than whole words. In this three-tier system, they figured out a way to achieve the desired results. In the lowest category of the system, the volkschuelen, the method was to divide whole ideas (which simultaneously integrate whole disciplines – math, science, language, art, etc.) into subjects which hardly existed prior to that time. The subjects were further divided into units requiring periods of time during the day. With appropriate variation, no one would really know what was happening in the world. It was inherently one of the most brilliant methods of knowledge suppression that had ever existed. They also replaced the alphabet system of teaching with the teaching of sounds. Hooked on phonics? Children could read without understanding what they were reading, or all the implications.
In 1814, the first American, Edward Everett, goes to Prussian to get a PhD. He eventually becomes governor of Massachusetts. During the next 30 years or so, a whole line of American dignitaries came to Germany to earn degrees (a German invention). Horace Mann, instrumental in the development of educational systems in America, was among them. Those who earned degrees in Germany came back to the United States and staffed all of the major universities. In 1850, Massachusetts and New York utilize the system, as well as promote the concept that “the state is the father of children.” Horace Mann’s sister, Elizabeth Peabody (Peabody Foundation) saw to it that after the Civil War, the Prussian system (taught in the Northern states) was integrated into the conquered South between 1865 and 1918. Most of the “compulsory schooling” laws designed to implement the system were passed by 1900. By 1900, all the PhD’s in the United States were trained in Prussia. This project also meant that one-room schoolhouses had to go, for it fostered independence. They were eventually wiped out.
One of the reasons that the self-appointed elite brought back the Prussian system to the United States was to ensure a non-thinking work force to staff the growing industrial revolution. In 1776, for example, about 85% of the citizens were reasonably educated and had independent livelihoods – they didn’t need to work for anyone. By 1840, the ratio was still about 70%. The attitude of “learn and then strike out on your own” had to be broken. The Prussian system was an ideal way to do it.
One of the prime importers of the German “educational” system into the United States was William T. Harris, from Saint Louis. He brought the German system in and set the purpose of the schools to alienate children from parental influence and that of religion. He preached this openly, and began creating “school staffing” programs that were immediately picked up by the new “teacher colleges”, many of which were underwritten by the Rockefeller family, the Carnegies, the Whitney’s and the Peabody family. The University of Chicago was underwritten by the Rockefellers.
The bottom line is that we had a literate country in the United States before the importation of the German educational system, designed to “dumb down” the mass population. It was more literate that it is today. The textbooks of the time make so much allusion to history, philosophy, mathematics, science and politics that they are hard to follow today because of the way people are “taught to think.”
Now, part of this whole paradigm seems to originate from an idea presented in The New Atlantis, by Francis Bacon (1627). The work described a “world research university” that scans the planet for babies and talent. The state then becomes invincible because it owned the university. It becomes impossible to revolt against the State because the State knows everything. A reflection of this principle can be seen today with the suppression of radical and practical technologies in order to preserve State control of life and prevent evolution and independence. The New Atlantis was widely read by German mystics in the 19th century. By 1840 in Prussia, there were a lot of “world research universities”, in concept, all over the country. All of them drawing in talent and developiong it for the purposes of State power and stability.

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#99 MrChips


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Posted 29 July 2017 - 03:03 PM

A Few Notes on Critical Thinking
Sounds so basic, right? Thinking comes naturally, but the awareness of how to think does not. Thinking critically involves taking control of your conscious thought processes. Without it, the risk of being controlled by others is easier to accomplish.
Critical doesn't mean taking a negative view finding fault. It involves thinking beyond the obvious, beyond the flash of the screen, the glossy advertisements, evasive statements made by talking heads, half truths in the propaganda, the faulty reasoning and circular arguments that manipulate our reasoning. Critical thinking is contemplating the conflicts created by different personalities, theories, ideologies, and facts.
It's a process of becoming aware of something, reflecting on it, and then reacting. Everybody does these anyway; reading a book and forming an opinion on it, meeting someone new and deciding to like them or not, learning a new job, etc. critical thinking does have a process:
Analyzing - Breaking the whole into parts and examining them closely. Seeing the interrelations.
Summarizing - restating the main message in your own words.
Interpreting - Reading between the lines to make inferences and evaluate the material for implied currents in the tone or slant and  the clarity between fact and opinion. 
Synthesizing - Putting it all together with what you already know and what you're learning. Explaining relationships among different ideas.
Assessing - Judging the matierial
None of things are rigidly in place. All these elements are intertwined and no particular order is required. Expect to combine them, reverse their order, and go over it again when needed. 
These are basic things to keep in mind. All this does get quite involved so don't let it drown you in its more complex aspects. In general these things are taught extensively on a university level. 

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Posted 29 July 2017 - 08:00 PM

How is traditional, in-class reading different from online reading? The following list was put together through a crowd-sourcing effort on Twitter by a handful of teachers who collaborated with me in late August 2010.
Colorado State University offers a useful guide to reading on the web. While it is aimed at college students, much of the information is pertinent to readers of all ages and could easily be part of lessons in the classroom. The following list includes some of the CSU strategies to strengthen reading comprehension, along with my thoughts on how to incorporate them into classroom instruction:
Synthesize online reading into meaningful chunks of information. We spend a lot of time talking about how to summarize a text by finding pertinent points and casting them in one’s own words. The same strategy can also work when synthesizing information from a web page.
Use a reader’s ability to effectively scan a page, as opposed to reading every word. We often give short shrift to the ability to scan, but it is a valuable skill on may levels. Using one’s eye to sift through key words and phrases allows a reader to focus on what is important.
Avoid distractions as much as necessary. Readbility is one tool that can make this possible. Advertising-blocking tools are another effective way to reduce unnecessary, and unwanted, content from a web page. At our school, we use Ad-Block Plus as a Firefox add-on to block ads.
Understand the value of a hyperlink before you click the link. This means reading the destination of the link itself. It is easier if the creator of the page puts the hyperlink into context, but if that is not the case, then the reader has to make a judgment about the value, safety, and validity of the link. One important issue to bring into this discussion is the importance of analyzing top-level domains. A URL that ends in .gov, for example, was created by a government entity in the U.S. Ask students what it means for a URL to end in .edu. What about .org? .com? Is a .edu or .org domain necessarily trustworthy?
Navigate a path from one page in a way that is clear and logical. This is easier said than done, since few of us create physical paths of our navigation. Draw a map of the path a reader goes on an assignment that uses the web. That visualization of the tangled path might be a valuable insight for young readers.

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