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Ghost in the Machine

Member Since 12 Aug 2015
Offline Last Active Mar 30 2018 07:16 AM

#13613 The Future of Robotic Exoskeletons

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 09 February 2018 - 06:15 PM

Global Military Exoskeleton Market to Grow at a CAGR of Over 65% Through 2021, Reports Technavio 
Need for integrated soldier suits
With the evolving warfare mechanisms, most of the countries across the globe have developed or are developing exoskeleton suits or body armor for their armed forces. Although there have been innovations and developments attached with these military wearables, their basic functionality includes the provision of added strength, efficiency, and combat capabilities to the armed troops. The modern-day soldiers are equipped with radios, night vision equipment, GPS, and computers in their uniforms that provide real-time positioning data, which assist the troops with satellite imagery of the battlefield. Thus, there is a growing demand for integrated smart weapons and lightweight full body armors.
“The introduction of such wearables can enhance the soldiers' performance manifold and reduce the scope of injuries or exhaustion. Owing to this, the US DoD, UK MoD, DGA, as well as the defense authorities of other countries, extensively invest in wearable systems for their warfighters in the modern network-centric battlefield,” says Moutushi Saha, a lead analyst at Technavio for defense research.
Focus on enhancing soldier combat capabilities
With the global increase in peacekeeping and anti-extremist missions, there has been a simultaneous surge in the development of advanced military wearables and exoskeleton systems. These military exoskeletons are equipped with communication systems, computers, helmets, lethal assault rifles, modular gear, navigation gadgets, and upgraded weapon sights, which transform the common soldiers into high-tech warriors. They provide the soldiers with higher adaptability and maneuverability, which makes them more efficient.
Apart from increasing the strengths and endurance limits of the soldiers, these systems also help in improving their load-lifting capabilities, which is crucial in military operations. These systems also employ the use of commercial off-the-shelf technologies such as activity trackers, health monitors, smart glasses, and smart watches.
PERSEUS Military Exoskeleton - Marketing Brochure
Exoskeleton Market 2018-2025: Increasing Global Industry Demand from Healthcare Sector for Robotic Rehabilitation
Exoskeleton Market Component (Hardware {Sensors, Actuator, Power Source, Control System/Controller, Others}, Software), Mobility (Stationary, Mobile), Type (Powered, Passive), Body Part (Lower Extremities, Upper Extremities, Full Body) Global Industry, Research Trends and Forecast to 2025
The Global Exoskeleton Market accounted to USD 112.6 million in 2017 growing at a CAGR of xx% during the forecast period of 2018 to 2025. The upcoming market report contains data for historic years 2016, the base year of calculation is 2017 and the forecast period is 2018 to 2025.
Also the Global Exoskeleton Market Component (Hardware {Sensors, Actuator, Power Source, Control System/Controller, Others}, Software), Mobility (Stationary, Mobile), Type (Powered, Passive), Body Part (Lower Extremities, Upper Extremities, Full Body), End-Users (Healthcare, Defense, Industrial, Others), Geography – Industry Trends and Forecast to 2025.
Exoskeleton is a structural frame that is worn by a human operator. The frame forms a human autonomy, depending on which body parts are actuated or powered by exoskeleton devices. Numerous exoskeletons are available for humans for the full body, upper extremities, and lower extremities.
Market Segmentation: Global Exoskeleton Market
By component the global exoskeleton market is segmented into hardware, and software.
Hardware segment is further sub-segmented into sensors, actuator, power source, control system/controller, and others. Sensors segment is further sub-segmented into microphone, accelerometer, tilt sensor, gyroscope, position sensor, force/torque sensor, and others. Actuator segment is further sub-segmented into electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and piezoelectric.
By mobility the global exoskeleton market is segmented into stationary, and mobile.
By type the global exoskeleton market is segmented into powered, and passive.
By body part the exoskeleton market is segmented into lower extremities, upper extremities, and full body.
By end-users the global exoskeleton market is segmented into healthcare, defense, industrial, and others.
On the basis of geography, global exoskeleton market report covers data points for 28 countries across multiple geographies such as North America & South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. Some of the major countries covered in this report are U.S., Canada, Germany, France, U.K., Netherlands, Switzerland, Turkey, Russia, China, India, South Korea, Japan, Australia, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and Brazil among others. In 2018, North America is expected to dominate the market.

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#13610 The Future of Robotic Exoskeletons

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 09 February 2018 - 04:49 PM

Robotic Exoskeletons Are Changing Lives in Surprising Ways
Say the term ‘power suit’ and most people think of bold corporate attire. But the expression takes on new meaning when it refers to a powered “exoskeleton,” like Ellen Ripley’s power loader in "Aliens," or Iron Man’s armor from the Marvel films and comic books.
Until a few years ago, such exoskeletons — metal frameworks fitted with motorized "muscles" that can multiply the wearers’ strength far beyond that of normal humans — were entirely fictional. The only real-world exoskeletons were the natural external coverings of animals such as beetles and crabs; protective outer structures that provide a stiff frame upon which their muscles can push against to move their bodies around.
“The timber cutters and construction workers I worked with just loved the MAX suit,” says a workplace injury-prevention specialist who recently field-tested the device. “Right away you could see they all felt like superheroes.”
The workers liked it even more on the job site. “Instead of squatting, they could just sit right down into the suit; it becomes a ‘chairless chair,’” he reports. “If they’re cutting overhead branches or wiring overhead harnesses, the MAX shoulder unit takes the load; all they need do is maneuver the saw or the tools.”
The workers liked it even more on the job site. “Instead of squatting, they could just sit right down into the suit; it becomes a ‘chairless chair,’” he reports. “If they’re cutting overhead branches or wiring overhead harnesses, the MAX shoulder unit takes the load; all they need do is maneuver the saw or the tools.”
The FDA Just Approved a Robotic Exoskeleton That Augments Your Strength
Japanese robotics company Cyberdyne has officially received approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to make its lower-body exoskeleton, known as Hybrid Assisted Limb or HAL, available to U.S. patients. The exoskeleton, which would be available through licensed medical facilities only, uses sensors to detect bioelectric signals sent from your brain to your muscles, which it pairs with your movement (or intended movement) in order to increase strength and stability.
HAL has been shown to be especially helpful for people with lower-limb disabilities, as many of these conditions involve a disconnect between the person’s intentions to move (the signals the brain sends) and the actual muscle movement that follows — or, more often, doesn’t follow. The exoskeleton also supports itself while being worn, meaning there’s no added weight or stress on the wearer’s body while they’re operating it.
Types And Classifications of Exoskeletons
Exoskeleton systems can be divided into many different categories, types or classifications based on a series of questions:
What body parts are actuated or powered by the wearable device? 
powered exoskeletons use batteries or electric cable connections to run sensors and actuators 
passive exoskeletons do not have any electrical power source
pseudo-passive exoskeletons have batteries, sensors, and other electronics, but they are not used to provide actuation. 
hybrid-exoskeletons are wearables that have all of the controllers and sensors of a powered exoskeleton but use FES (functional electrical stimulation) of the muscles as actuators.
How is it built?

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#13595 Naughty Nuns, Flatulent Monks, and Other Surprises

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 07 February 2018 - 08:33 PM








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#13585 Places You Are NOT Allowed To Visit…

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 07 February 2018 - 06:59 PM

What’s hidden in the Vatican Secret Archives?
Some believe it houses evidence of extraterrestrial life. Others, ancient texts that disprove the existence of Jesus. Perhaps dark truths that would discredit and destroy the Church?
A mistranslated Latin word may be responsible for the conspiracy theories about the Vatican Secret Archives. In fact, the actual contents can stand on their own without delving into the absurd.
The archives, or Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum, contains historical records chronicling intriguing historical events. Its contents, once plundered by Napoleon and moved to Paris, span 12 centuries.
There’s the document that began the Protestant reformations: Pope Leo X’s 1521 decree excommunicating Martin Luther.
A 1530 petition from 85 English clergymen and lords asks Pope Clement VII to annul King Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon. The seals of many of the signatories were affixed to the petition, each held in place by red ribbon. This is considered the source of the term “red tape.” Clement refused, of course, leading to the establishment of the Anglican Church.
Michelangelo penned a letter to the pope warning that Vatican guards hadn’t received paychecks in three months, and that they were threatening to walk off the job.
A year after Columbus landed in what became North America, Pope Alexander VI issued Inter Cetera, the 1493 papal bull that split the New World between Spain and Portugal.
There are letters from Abraham Lincoln as well as Jefferson Davis, who wrote to try to convince Pope Pius IX that the South was an innocent victim of Northern aggression. Neither man was Catholic.
The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, the notion that Mary was conceived without original sin, was articulated in 1854 on a piece of parchment that’s in the archives.
Famous Vatican trials were recorded with handwritten transcripts that are housed there, including cases against the Knights Templar in the early 14th century and astronomer Galileo Galilei in the 17th, who was tried by the Vatican for heresy and forced to spend the rest of his life under house arrest.
When Sweden’s Queen Christina abdicated in 1654, she converted to Catholicism from Lutheranism, moved to Rome, and today she is one of the few women buried in St. Peter’s Basilica. There’s a letter to the pope announcing her conversion.
Interesting, sure, but hardly the stuff of Dan Brown novels.
Are the Vatican Archives really “secret”?
Sorry to burst your bubble, Dan Brown & Co.
The Vatican archives are far from being an amusement park for conspiracy theorists. In fact, they might be quite boring for the general audience: nothing too scandalous, noting too secret. Actually, the aura that covers the Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum — that’s its official full name — might only be due to a mistranslation from the original Latin: “secretum,” far from being translated as “secret,” simply means “personal.” Whomever has ever had a secretaire (a secretary desk, an escritoire, hopefully a Chippendale) might probably get a hint of what’s at stake here: the Vatican “Secret Archive” is a collection of personal documents, mainly private letters, chronicles and historical records of past popes. Sorry to burst your bubble, Dan Brown & Co.
The Vatican secret library – what mysteries lay hidden in the Holy See’s Vatican Secret Archive
The Vatican claims it contains documents dating back to the 8th century but many believe it contains much, much older artifacts. Since divulging items contained in the collection is considered a grave sin punishable by excommunication from the church, what truly lies inside is a mystery.
Gaining access to the Vatican Secret Archives
It is generally believed that the only human on earth with unfettered access to the Vatican Secret Library is the Pope himself (technically, the Pope is the owner of the Secret Archives). Rules allow for special permits to be provided for carefully accredited researchers but journalists, students, and amateur historians are barred.
For those that manage to gain access, there are strict limitations to what archive material they can access and view. Even for those rare individuals who are allowed to enter, there are entire sections that are strictly forbidden.
Researchers are only allowed to access three items per day. The items they wish to view must be specifically documented in their request, a remarkable feat given nobody truly knows what’s inside.
Researchers are only allowed to bring a pen and paper into the vaults. While inside the library, they are accompanied by two priests and two guards that stay with them throughout their time in the library. And their visit is timed.

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#13581 The Mysteries of Babylon

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 07 February 2018 - 03:11 PM


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#13572 Places You Are NOT Allowed To Visit…

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 06 February 2018 - 01:07 PM

These 11 laws are what keep space from becoming the wild west
When Russia launched the world's first satellite in 1957, it revealed a glaring hole in legal policy — how should we regulate outer space? Should Russia get in trouble for violating international law by flying a satellite over US airspace without permission? 
It was clear we'd need a new set of rules to govern airspace as humanity started climbing higher into the sky and eventually into outer space.
That, and the Cold War idea that the United States or Russia would try to colonize space and create a nuclear weapons base there helped inspire the United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967. 
The treaty was the founding body of space law and it's inspired several other international conventions and agreements. 
Here are some of the major laws that currently govern space, and what policies we'll need in the future:
One of the most important bodies of space law is the United Nations "Outer Space Treaty." It lays out several rules that dictate how countries must behave in space.
1. Space is common ground and everyone is allowed to explore it.
2. But anyone exploring space has to do it peacefully.
3. That means no military bases.
4. And it's not just military bases — no country can claim any land in space.
5. The "Moon Agreement" elaborates on the idea that no country can own any celestial object.
Not that people don't try.
6. Anything that launches into space has to be registered.
7. If there's a spaceship crash, the state is held responsible for the damage.
8. In fact, people were so worried about damages from space exploration, that they created a whole separate liability treaty.
9. No one is supposed to contaminate space.
10. The "Rescue Agreement."
11. US citizens can now harvest minerals from asteroids.
Lunar Parking Permits
Do you need special permission to land something on the moon?
In the United States, various government agencies follow private activities in outer space, but the bulk of the oversight comes through the Federal Aviation Administration's Office of Space Transportation. Any American citizen who wants to launch a rocket or other kind of spacecraft into orbit must obtain authorization from the FAA, as would any foreigner who launches within U.S. territory. The FAA regulates the commercial sector's space activities by requiring parties to obtain launch and re-entry licenses. The office spends up to six months vetting launch plans for potential harm to the public that could occur if something went awry—like falling debris or the formation of a toxic cloud from an explosion. During the review of an application, the FAA also investigates a plan's compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act, with deciding factors being whether the pollution from the launch could harm a historic site or the natural environment, or if noise from the launch could be detrimental to surrounding plant and animal life. To get a launch license, a company must prove that it could take financial responsibility if anything went wrong, and that its activities won't threaten foreign policy or national security interests. Additionally, a lunar launch team in the United States would have to get permission from the Federal Communications Commission to use government communications frequencies while in orbit.
Have you heard the one where it's illegal to come in contact with space aliens?
This message says that a law already passed by Congress makes it illegal to have contact with a space alien and establishes penalties for anybody who does. It specifies Title 14, Section 1211 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
The Truth:
Several things to say about this story.

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#13568 Places You Are NOT Allowed To Visit…

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 06 February 2018 - 12:20 PM

With breakthroughs in technology every year, from improvements in transportation to new trip planning applications, wanderlusts can travel to more secluded places. However, there are some places that will remain off limits -- and for good reason.
The sites below are among the most fascinating on earth -- from the vault containing the highly coveted, secret formula for Coca-Cola to an island inhabited by thousands of snakes. Some are temporarily closed off from the public while others will remain so permanently, meaning exploration will have to be conducted via imagination.
Royal Air Force Station Menwith Hill
Vatican Secret Archives
Pine Gap
Moscow Metro-2
Google Data Centers
Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion
The Jiangsu National Security Education Museum
Ilha da Queimada Grande (Snake Island)
Heard and McDonald Islands
Tomb of the Qin Shi Huang
North Sentinel Island, Island in the Indian Ocean
The haunted island of Poveglia
EXPOSED: The most secret and forbidden places you can NEVER visit
The world may be our oyster but there are some places you will NEVER be allowed to see
Snake Island
Area 51
The Queen’s bedroom
Club 33 at Disneyworld
The vault of Coca Cola
Fort Knox, Kentucky
Svalbard Seed Vault
Room 39, North Korea
The Lascaux Caves, France
North Sentinel Island
Bohemian Grove
Ise Jingu (Ise Grand Shrine)
The Mormon Church Secret Vault
White’s Gentleman’s Club

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#13442 Would You Like a Reading?

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 25 January 2018 - 04:37 PM

Nice post on Verisimilitude.
I recently read a novel and I think it offers realism in all four of the categories!
Whether or not the future presented is real or not? That remains to be seen...
Here's a great article written about it touching on many of the posts you already pointed out in this thread. 
Kim Stanley Robinson’s Latest Novel Imagines Life in an Underwater New York

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#13388 Would You Like a Reading?

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 20 January 2018 - 05:31 PM

Five star thread Red!


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#13103 The Horrifying Job of Facebook Content Moderators

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 02 January 2018 - 11:08 PM

Does Facebook delete all their objectionable content or do they store it away in the forbidden data box? What about smaller forums and their content? Backups of all postings are gathered in one way or another. If not your own backups others will make them for themselves.  

Deleting (or storing it someplace else like a hard drive) data from a server is a cost cutting device.

As for seeing objectionable content described in the above article? I agree that those who sift through the muck should be compensated justly. Not only monetarily but for their health and service. Doing a job of that nature is more than just a public service. It also serves a higher one. A moral one. Offering ones services to clean the sewers of the social mind is a commendable one. One that is under appreciated.


But the sewers aren't the only places where admins and mods find themselves with problems. Moderating drama and ideologies gets really heated. Name calling and argument shifting are prevalent. Professional argumentation skills marketing issues to the forefront of the public mind make it difficult to see which issues should take precedence over another. Many issues are designed to inflict damage upon one group or another. These 'top stories' cause much angst on the social forums. Emotional outbursts are common. How should a moderator proceed? What comments should be deleted or flagged?


Those are questions one learns along the way...


...along with many others...


I ran into this article that is relevant:
Are Toxic Political Conversations Changing How We Feel about Objective Truth?
As political polarization increases in the U.S., the kind of antagonistic exchange exemplified by the Trump-Clinton debate is occurring with increasing frequency—not just among policy makers but among us all. In interactions such as these, people may provide arguments for their views, but neither side is genuinely interested in learning from the other. Instead the real aim is to “score points,” in other words, to defeat the other side in a competitive activity. Conversations on Twitter, Facebook and even YouTube comment sections have become powerful symbols of what the combativeness of political discourse looks like these days. We refer to this kind of discussion as “arguing to win.” 
The divergence of Americans’ ideology is accompanied by an animosity for those across the aisle. Recent polls show that partisan liberals and conservatives associate with one another less frequently, have unfavorable views of the opposing party, and would even be unhappy if a family member married someone from the other side. At the same time, the rise of social media has revolutionized how information is consumed—news is often personalized to one’s political preferences. Rival perspectives can be completely shut out from one’s self-created media bubble. Making matters worse, outrage-inducing content is more likely to spread on these platforms, creating a breeding ground for clickbait headlines and fake news. This toxic online environment is very likely driving Americans further apart and fostering unproductive exchanges. 
In this time of rising tribalism, an important question has arisen about the psychological effects of arguing to win. What happens in our minds—and to our minds—when we find ourselves conversing in a way that simply aims to defeat an opponent? Our recent research has explored this question using experimental methods, and we have found that the distinction between different modes of argument has some surprisingly far-reaching effects. Not only does it change people’s way of thinking about the debate and the people on the opposing side, but it also has a more fundamental effect on our way of understanding the very issue under discussion. 
Are we objectivists or relativists?

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#12338 Once Upon A Time....

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 05 November 2017 - 02:48 PM


Most of the time clock drifts and time-stamp discrepancies are related to illegal activities. It's a massive network using atomic-clock monitoring throughout the whole system. All synchronized with one time source. It uses a wide variety of software to prove accuracy across the board. Logging every event and analyzing the whole for drifting. Some systems have low cost battery base quartz crystal clocks. These tend to lag behind the time protocol. Plus, there's the satellite GPS systems. These are vulnerable to signal disruptions over the wireless. Leaving wormholes in time for secret and active travel across the framework.


White space is another way to transmit data. Basically, they're just radio links. White-space technology allows multiple services to share the same radio bands by hopping between frequencies. It's old technology but it's free so they don't want to bring it out. Just like radio. It's super fast bandwidth with no limits essentially.

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#12286 Cock Tales and Feathers

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 31 October 2017 - 11:30 AM


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#12284 Halloween Tricks and Treats

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 31 October 2017 - 11:25 AM

Causing mischief has been a part of the Halloween tradition since the very beginning.
The most ancient roots of Halloween come from the Celts of Great Britain, who believed that the day before their Nov. 1 New Year was a time when spirits came back to haunt and play tricks. On Oct. 31, people dressed up in scary costumes, played games, lit bonfires and left food out on their doorsteps for the ghosts in celebration of this otherworldly event, which the Celts called Samhain.
When Great Britain was Christianized in the 800s, the ghoulish games of Samhain merged with All Saints Day and All Souls Day, during which the dead were honored with parades and door-to-door solicitation by peasants for treats — usually a bit of food or money.
After the Protestant Reformation, much of England stopped the "treating" side of Halloween because it was connected to Catholic saints, and transferred the trickery to the eve of Guy Fawkes Night, a Nov. 5 holiday celebrating the foiling of the 1605 Gunpowder Plot to blow up British Parliament. Mischief Night in England is still celebrated on Nov. 4.
The Irish, Scottish and northern English, meanwhile, kept up much of their Halloween traditions, including the good-natured misbehavior, and brought their ways to North America with the wave of immigration in the 1800s.
Before the 20th century, Halloween mischief in the United States and Canada happened on Oct. 31 and consisted of tipping over outhouses, unhinging farmer's gates, throwing eggs at houses and the like. By the 1920s and 30s, however, the celebrations had become more like a rowdy block party, and the acts of vandalism more serious, probably instigated by tensions over the Great Depression and the threat of war, historians say.
To stem the vandalism, concerned parents and town leaders tried to ply kids with candy, encouraging the forgotten tradition of trick-or-treating in costume in exchange for sweets, bumping the mischief element from the celebrations of Oct. 31 altogether. It was then that the troublemakers, neighborhood by neighborhood, adopted Oct. 30 as their day to pull pranks. 
The notion of dressing up in costume and going from door to door for goods dates back to the Middle Ages, according to Smithsonian.com.
“Children and sometimes poor adults would dress up [as saints, angels or demons costumes] and go around door to door during Hallowmas begging for food or money in exchange for songs and prayers, often said on behalf of the dead.”
According to Smithsonian.com, back then, it wasn’t called trick-or-treating. It was called “souling” and the beggars were called “soulers.”
The practice of trick-or-treating emerged in the U.S. in the 1920s and 1930s.
But the earliest known reference to the term “trick or treat” actually comes from a 1927 publication in Canada.
Here’s what the Smithsonian found in the Nov. 4, 1927, edition of the Blackie, Alberta Canada Herald:
“Hallowe’en provided an opportunity for real strenuous fun. No real damage was done except to the temper of some who had to hunt for wagon wheels, gates, wagons, barrels, etc., much of which decorated the front street. The youthful tormentors were at back door and front demanding edible plunder by the word “trick or treat” to which the inmates gladly responded and sent the robbers away rejoicing.”
Still, how exactly Americans adopted the tradition is still a little confusing, History.com reported, though it’s widely understood that Irish and Scottish immigrants brought Halloween traditions to the U.S. with them.
Theorists also say it could have been the excessive pranks on Halloween that led to its adoption as a holiday tradition. 
These pranks were popular among “rowdy young people” and often amounted to expensive damage, vandalism and physical violence.
When World War II broke out, however, trick-or-treating came to a halt due to sugar rationing.
Today, Americans spend millions on costumes annually to partake in the door-to-door tradition.
When Halloween Was All Tricks and No Treats
In this era, when Americans generally lived in small communities and better knew their neighbors, it was often the local grouch who was the brunt of Halloween mischief. The children would cause trouble and the adults would just smile guiltily to themselves, amused by rocking chairs engineered onto rooftops, or pigs set free from sties. But when early 20th-century Americans moved into crowded urban centers—full of big city problems like poverty, segregation, and unemployment—pranking took on a new edge. Kids pulled fire alarms, threw bricks through shop windows, and painted obscenities on the principal’s home. They struck out blindly against property owners, adults, and authority in general. They begged for money or sweets, and threatened vandalism if they didn’t receive them.
Some grown-ups began to fight back. Newspapers in the early 20th century reported incidents of homeowners firing buckshot at pranksters who were only 11 or 12 years old. “Letting the air out of tires isn’t fun anymore,” wrote the Superintendent of Schools of Rochester, New York in a newspaper editorial in 1942, as U.S. participation in World War II was escalating. “It’s sabotage. Soaping windows isn’t fun this year. Your government needs soaps and greases for the war … Even ringing doorbells has lost its appeal because it may mean disturbing the sleep of a tired war worker who needs his rest.” That same year, the Chicago City Council voted to abolish Halloween and instead institute a “Conservation Day” on October 31. (Implementation got kicked to the mayor, who doesn’t appear to have done much about it.)
The effort to restrain and recast the holiday continued after World War II, as adults moved Halloween celebrations indoors and away from destructive tricks, and gave the holiday over to younger and younger children. The Senate Judiciary Committee under President Truman recommended Halloween be repurposed as “Youth Honor Day” in 1950, hoping that communities would celebrate and cultivate the moral fiber of children. The House of Representatives, sidetracked by the Korean War, neglected to act on the motion, but there were communities that took it up: On October 31, 1955 in Ocala, Florida, a Youth Honor Day king and queen were crowned at a massive party sponsored by the local Moose Lodge. As late as 1962, New York City Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr. wanted to change Halloween to UNICEF Day, to shift the emphasis of the night to charity.
Happy Halloween!

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#11836 Rhetorical Devices Used in Literary Logic

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 09 October 2017 - 11:29 AM

Have they taught them how to lie?
Facebook built an AI system that learned to lie to get what it wants
The pursuit of Facebook’s AI isn’t too different than other applications of AI, like the game Go. Each anticipates its opponent’s future actions and works to maximize its winnings. But unlike Google’s Go-playing AlphaGo, Facebook’s algorithm needs to make sense to humans while doing so.
From the human conversations (gathered via Amazon Mechanical Turk), and testing its skills against itself, the AI system didn’t only learn how to state its demands, but negotiation tactics as well—specifically, lying. Instead of outright saying what it wanted, sometimes the AI would feign interest in a worthless object, only to later concede it for something that it really wanted. Facebook isn’t sure whether it learned from the human hagglers or whether it stumbled upon the trick accidentally, but either way when the tactic worked, it was rewarded.
Interesting business possibilities
The first thought that comes to mind is taking us humans out of the equation and letting AI do all of the hard work on large contract negotiations.
How great would it be to bring my "AI bot" to the negotiating table (or I guess now it would be the negotiating computer screen) to outsmart, deceive, and manipulate the pathetic human on the other side of the contract negotiations?
We'd win every time.
Of course, other companies would quickly get smart to it and start to bring their own AI bot negotiators. Then it might be like some form of Robot Wars, except instead of two mechanical robots attempting to slice and dice each other physically, we'd have two AI bots duking it out via a computer screen.
We could have them actually run big parts of the business for us. We could get them involved in the highly strategic world of mergers and acquisitions. Every company could have lots of AI bots out there doing the work, building AI bot relationships, strategically maneuvering around the business landscape while us humans hung out in Vegas.
It might get really interesting for us to watch. Who's to say that the AI bots wouldn't form alliances out there to help them lie, deceive and manipulate their way to success? One AI bot could bluff its way into a big business opportunity by aligning with two other AI bots only to reveal later that it was part of a larger plan to buy those other two AI bots out.
Actually, that kind of sounds like human behavior but just done much more effectively.
Google’s DeepMind pits AI against AI to see if they fight or cooperate
Unsurprisingly, they do both
AI computer agents could manage systems from the quotidian (e.g., traffic lights) to the complex (e.g., a nation’s whole economy), but leaving aside the problem of whether or not they can do their jobs well, there is another challenge: will these agents be able to play nice with one another? What happens if one AI’s aims conflict with another’s? Will they fight, or work together?
Google’s AI subsidiary DeepMind has been exploring this problem in a new study published today. The company’s researchers decided to test how AI agents interacted with one another in a series of “social dilemmas.” This is a rather generic term for situations in which individuals can profit from being selfish — but where everyone loses if everyone is selfish. The most famous example of this is the prisoner’s dilemma, where two individuals can choose to betray one another for a prize, but lose out if both choose this option. 
The results of the study, then, show that the behavior of AI agents changes based on the rules they’re faced with. If those rules reward aggressive behavior (“Zap that player to get more apples”) the AI will be more aggressive; if they rewards cooperative behavior (“Work together and you both get points!) they’ll be more cooperative.
That means part of the challenge in controlling AI agents in the future, will be making sure the right rules are in place. As the researchers conclude in their blog post: “As a consequence [of this research], we may be able to better understand and control complex multi-agent systems such as the economy, traffic systems, or the ecological health of our planet - all of which depend on our continued cooperation.”

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#11737 The Dark Side of the Internet

Posted by Ghost in the Machine on 02 October 2017 - 10:04 AM

All things you do, whether it is streaming movies, browsing Facebook, some other thing, you are doing it on the web, not on the internet. The Internet is a network of computer devices, routers, and server across the globe. While the web or World Wide Web is like software running on the internet, it doesn’t have any physical existence. The web used to access all the websites and services with the help of various protocols.
The “dark web” is a part of the world wide web that requires special software to access. Once inside, web sites and other services can be accessed through a browser in much the same way as the normal web.
However, some sites are effectively “hidden”, in that they have not been indexed by a search engine and can only be accessed if you know the address of the site. Special markets also operate within the dark web called “darknet markets”, which mainly sell illegal products like drugs and firearms, paid for in the cryptocurrency Bitcoin.
The dark web has been host to crowdfunded “assassination markets”, where users can pay towards having someone assassinated. A site was reportedly created to crowdfund the assassination of US President Donald Trump and Vice-President Mike Pence, but most of these platforms are likely to be scams.
More recently, a journalist was able to purchase his Medicare details on a Tor website. The dark net vendor claimed they could sell the Medicare patient details of any Australian.
Because of the the dark web’s almost total anonymity, it has been the place of choice for groups wanting to stay hidden online from governments and law enforcement agencies.
Whistle blowers have used the dark web to communicate with journalists, but more frequently, it has been used by paedophile groups, terrorists and criminals to keep their dealings secret.
So just for a minute imagine that the whole internet is a forest – a vast expanse of luscious green as far as the eye can see. And in the forest are well worn paths – to get from A to B. Think of these paths as popular search engines – like Google – allowing you as the user the option to essentially see the wood from the trees and be connected. But away from these paths – and away from Google – the trees of the forest mask your vision...
Broadly cybercrime can be broken down into two categories:
Cyber-dependent crime: a criminal act that only exists because of the computer, such as writing and releasing malware or efforts to hack and penetrate computer or network security.
Cyber-enabled crime: a criminal act that is enhanced through the use of technology, such as Ponzi schemes or credit card fraud.
The bulk of cybercrime is computer-enabled crime, predominantly economic in nature such as fraud, financial scams, and so on. This is why Action Fraud, the lead cybercrime reporting mechanism in the UK, has joined the National Fraud Intelligence Bureau (NIFB) of the City of London Police. Reports of cybercrime are analysed and then passed on to local police forces, or the National Crime Agency which deals with serious and organised crime.
What is Deep Web?
A private network, tagged as deep web, can be right next to your house. It’s just the internet that isn’t within reach of standard search engine crawlers. For instance, the network maintained by some paid streaming service. It is a type of deep web or hidden web. Obviously, the search engines won’t be opting for a monthly subscription to index the catalog of such websites.
What is Darknet?
Contrary to deep web, Darknet is better known to the people. It is an encrypted network built on top of the existing internet, and specific software or tools are required to access the darknet. It is possible, conventional protocols used on the internet might not work on the darknet.
Darknet provides anonymity to the users. One such darknet is Tor or The Onion Router. You require the Tor browser to enter into the Tor’s network.
What Is Dark Web
There is another thing you would like to be aware of, the dark web. You can think of the dark web as a subset of the deep web.
The darknet is a network, and the deep web constitutes the chunk of the World Wide Web that is beyond the reach of the search engines. So, we can decipher dark web as the World Wide Web of the darknets like Tor, Freenet, etc. That is, the services and websites running on the darknet is the dark web.

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