Analogies are fun. They're little ideas comparing one thing to another using a familiar thing. Metaphors and similes are used to build an analogy."The structure of the universal mind is like the galaxies, stars, and planets expanding ever outward toward infinity."The universal mind is compared to the constellations using "like". This is a simile. A metaphor relates it to the expanding infinity without using words like "like" or "as".Graphic analogies are useful too!
Irony is a literary technique & rhetoric device that has been used for many years in speech, art and everyday life. Although irony has been used for a long time, there hasn't been an exact definition of irony. There have been hundreds of definitions suggested over the years, however, a general consensus is that:Irony is a figure of speech which is a contradiction or incongruity between what is expected and what actually occurs.Most of the definitions of irony are something along these lines, though there is often disagreement about the specific meaning of this term.
More on IRONY here:
How can I make a thread of this nature without including metaphors?Metaphors are one of the most common types of speech. They add a sort of definition and color because they describe a comparison between two things that are most often apart except for a common characteristic that can link the two together. A noun or a verb can be described as something different.An example comparing a chef to a writer. Learning to write can be visualized with cooking skills. One must learn to bake, roast, chop, and cut. Including all the little things that go with it through practice and experience. They're great for sharpening the imagination and to give further understanding in communicating ideasMetaphors are different from similes in that they don't use terms like "like" or "as" to compare two things. Metaphors make hidden comparisons. Portraying one thing as being something else but not that something else. There is an implied implicit meaning.
Sometimes personification gets confused with a pathetic fallacy. This is a kind of personification that provides emotional life into natural inanimate objects. For example, they reflect the nature of moods and desires into the features of the wind.
Here's some more devices that offer rhythm and melodic meter to text and speech:Epizeuxis or diacopeThese are words or phrases that are repeated in a rapid succession within the same sentence to emphasize a point or idea.The purpose of epizeuxis is to create greater emotion to the listener or reader. Jabbing the air with emphasis, it motivates and inspires a memorable focus on thoughts and ideas through deep sentiment.Because of its repetive nature it also inspires memorization of ideas on a sub-conscious level. These devices are used as artistic effects in lyrics, prose and poetry. How many songs have you heard that use these techniques? Have you ever considered the ideas presented in the lyrics of your favorite songs?There are two other terms that use the same technique.One is an Epistrophe.These are repetitive words or phrases at the end of sentences that call attention to a point of interest.The opposite of this effect brings us to the second term.Anaphora - basically the same definition as Epistrophe except they come at the beginning of sentences.
Descriptive combinations of words and phrases with opposing ideas are called Oxymoron's. They create polarity in descriptions. They are built by adding adjectives before a noun to give it a contrast in meaning.Good examples are:Tragically comical.Seriously funny.Only choice.Original Copies.Happily Married.Clean Dirt.Always remember, an oxymoron is combination of two contradictory words. This differentiates it from a paradox. Paradox's contain one or more sentences and they always imply some kind of truth within. Paradox's describe things contrary to expectations.With these devices hidden meanings can be conveyed in a simple manner. They create imagery within sentence structure leaving the reader to discern for themselves any implied intrigue.
The Euphemism: Using 'politically correct' language to dumb down the brutal truth.
A Euphemism is an expression that conveys a polite term for something unpleasant. They lose their literal meaning and become a tactful way to describe an objectionable term. It's a good way to test the bounds of political correctness. They can be indirect to describe something direct. Mispronouncing objectionable words can create the same type of effect. In reality, they can be as bad as the real objectionable term.
Hyperbole is a figure of speech involving an exxagerated idea to accentuate a real situation. It's an amusing device used to create contrast between a normal description and one with an overstatement.Not only can hyperboles be found in our oral statements and in literature but they're also important in media ad campaigns. Visual hyperboles have become commonplace on the TV screen. They're amplified graphically to encourage people to buy products. The research in this area has been sparse.
..and the antidote...Litotes
Meiosis is defined as using little understatements to minimize the reputation of somebody. Especially when used in giving the impression that something is weak or tawdry in importance. It's a method of speech to give information that diminishes one emotional response in order to insert another in its place. Its effect produces sarcasm and sardony with its descriptions of mannerisms and tone. It's the opposite of hyperbole because it's the kind of irony that deliberately makes the object of ridicule appear foolish and misleading.Meiosis is closely related to Litotes. These are figures of speech using an understatement in which "an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite" using double negatives or opposing statements. Such as "this is no mean feat". Litotes use understatement to high light importance rather than minimize it. It attracts attention to an idea by ignoring it. Avoiding to name the object straightforward by using discretion. Talking about something negatively can sometimes be the best way to make it appear positive.