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Replying to Rhetorical Devices Used in Literary Logic


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Feathers

Posted 09 October 2017 - 12:50 PM

food-drink-truth_detector-polygraph_mach

 

:funny-chicken-dancing:

 

http://forum.chicken...-of-the-future/


Ghost in the Machine

Posted 09 October 2017 - 11:29 AM

Have they taught them how to lie?
 
Facebook built an AI system that learned to lie to get what it wants
 
The pursuit of Facebook’s AI isn’t too different than other applications of AI, like the game Go. Each anticipates its opponent’s future actions and works to maximize its winnings. But unlike Google’s Go-playing AlphaGo, Facebook’s algorithm needs to make sense to humans while doing so.
 
From the human conversations (gathered via Amazon Mechanical Turk), and testing its skills against itself, the AI system didn’t only learn how to state its demands, but negotiation tactics as well—specifically, lying. Instead of outright saying what it wanted, sometimes the AI would feign interest in a worthless object, only to later concede it for something that it really wanted. Facebook isn’t sure whether it learned from the human hagglers or whether it stumbled upon the trick accidentally, but either way when the tactic worked, it was rewarded.
 
 
Interesting business possibilities
 
The first thought that comes to mind is taking us humans out of the equation and letting AI do all of the hard work on large contract negotiations.
 
How great would it be to bring my "AI bot" to the negotiating table (or I guess now it would be the negotiating computer screen) to outsmart, deceive, and manipulate the pathetic human on the other side of the contract negotiations?
 
We'd win every time.
 
Of course, other companies would quickly get smart to it and start to bring their own AI bot negotiators. Then it might be like some form of Robot Wars, except instead of two mechanical robots attempting to slice and dice each other physically, we'd have two AI bots duking it out via a computer screen.
 
We could have them actually run big parts of the business for us. We could get them involved in the highly strategic world of mergers and acquisitions. Every company could have lots of AI bots out there doing the work, building AI bot relationships, strategically maneuvering around the business landscape while us humans hung out in Vegas.
 
It might get really interesting for us to watch. Who's to say that the AI bots wouldn't form alliances out there to help them lie, deceive and manipulate their way to success? One AI bot could bluff its way into a big business opportunity by aligning with two other AI bots only to reveal later that it was part of a larger plan to buy those other two AI bots out.
 
Actually, that kind of sounds like human behavior but just done much more effectively.
 
 
Google’s DeepMind pits AI against AI to see if they fight or cooperate
 
Unsurprisingly, they do both
 
AI computer agents could manage systems from the quotidian (e.g., traffic lights) to the complex (e.g., a nation’s whole economy), but leaving aside the problem of whether or not they can do their jobs well, there is another challenge: will these agents be able to play nice with one another? What happens if one AI’s aims conflict with another’s? Will they fight, or work together?
 
Google’s AI subsidiary DeepMind has been exploring this problem in a new study published today. The company’s researchers decided to test how AI agents interacted with one another in a series of “social dilemmas.” This is a rather generic term for situations in which individuals can profit from being selfish — but where everyone loses if everyone is selfish. The most famous example of this is the prisoner’s dilemma, where two individuals can choose to betray one another for a prize, but lose out if both choose this option. 
 
The results of the study, then, show that the behavior of AI agents changes based on the rules they’re faced with. If those rules reward aggressive behavior (“Zap that player to get more apples”) the AI will be more aggressive; if they rewards cooperative behavior (“Work together and you both get points!) they’ll be more cooperative.
 
That means part of the challenge in controlling AI agents in the future, will be making sure the right rules are in place. As the researchers conclude in their blog post: “As a consequence [of this research], we may be able to better understand and control complex multi-agent systems such as the economy, traffic systems, or the ecological health of our planet - all of which depend on our continued cooperation.”
 

Posted 09 October 2017 - 10:48 AM

So when will there be an app to detect logical fallacies?

 

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Posted 09 October 2017 - 10:18 AM

So when will there be an app to detect logical fallacies?


Posted 09 October 2017 - 10:13 AM

The Categorical Converter
 
The Categorial Converter is a visual representation of all possible logical relationships between individual categorical propositions. It may be used to test the validity of an inference from one proposition to another.
 
In other words, the Categorical Converter represents all possible inferences using the rules of:
 
    Contradiction
    Contrary
    Subcontrary
    Subalternation
    Superalternation
    Obversion
    Conversion
    Transposition
 
From here, you may view the Categorical Converter. You may also learn how to use it, and finally, learn how it was constructed.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Posted 08 October 2017 - 06:36 PM

 

A related term...

 

Polysemy - One word used to describe different things. Also can include phrases, symbolic poetic imagery, and different forms of jargon. Example: Look up the word monster in webster. Then look up the same word in an old law dictionary. Some words have up to 30 meanings. They're meant to hit the senses on a deeper level. They are always done on purpose (this is the main difference between the above related homophones) and are especially used in an historical sense; over time words change their meaning but can still be twisted to serve more than one purpose of meaning.
 
Perhaps this is why it is difficult to teach these in class. It relates to etymology (origins of words) which takes time and study. Worthy study for a greater historical sense in meaning. 
 
Often, judging how Polysemes are related makes them ambiguous and vague in nature. I think this works with all languages in one form or another as problems arise when non-native speakers learn a new language. At least it's seen when learning English. Inside information can be conveyed using this device. 

 

 

 

:Bump:

 

I found this post about 'twilight language' to be apt:

 

http://forum.chicken...-great/?p=11350

 

The twilight kind?
 
I think it comes from silent thought.
 
No sound....
 
One star starts to speak. It vibrates, it sings, causing it to burst forth in a blast of metaphor to speak on many different levels. The other stars created from that initial idea begin their own movements. All at the same time. Dancing to a piece of music created out of nothing. Layered and full of meaning.
 
Build a sigal, fill it with symbols, and insert multi analogies in each one.
 
Which ones mean most to you? 
 
 

RottenApples

Posted 26 September 2017 - 11:57 AM

Caricatures are a great way to exaggerate features within a subject. It's best at using visual representations to portray provocative expressions. What is base? What is noble? These are the questions caricature likes to draw out. Distorting features and characteristics bring out the hidden contrasts. It's not merely an imitation but an outright exaggeration. The allusion is powerful as it brings out elaborate meanings within the text and images portrayed. Hyperbole is used to great effect for caricature creation. Sometimes it's easier to recognize the caricature than a portrait.   
 
a-caricature-is-putting-the-face-of-a-jo

Posted 19 September 2017 - 12:59 PM

 

I thought it would be cool to make a thread about logical fallacies. These little nutcrackers always get in the way of decent discourse. Too bad, too. So I figure learning about them in a little more detail would help distinguish the different types of literary devices used in the everyday media.
 
Today, I'll start off with the ad hominem attack. This one is used constantly. It's a favorite technique because it causes lots of discord among the arguers. It's so much easier to question an individuals personal associations rather than paying attention to the validity of the main argument. Ad hominems can be mistaken as a personal insult when the subtle nature is a different distinction. Blatant and clever insults against somebody make it hard for people to believe it isn't true. If you look at this rationally such techniques never provide a valid reason to disregard decent criticism. 
 
Ad hominem has great power to persuade as it leaves a large impression on the mind of the audience. It somehow causes bias from the audience. This is a flawed arguing technique as it causes judgments to made without evaluation of facts on logical grounds.
 
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SNARK!

 
Don't cha just love the sound of this word? It's so sharp and snakey. Always good with an exclamation point! This word means a snide and sarcastic comment. They can be both wildly stupid or incredibly clever. Depending on the point of view. It combines cynicisms with blended wit. They'r usually quick little quips to tease someone into an emotional response. Derisive in nature they can and will at times cut deep into the psyche. It can be used as a defensive device to cut away at an individual like an ad hominem attack. Most of the time snarks are used to mask points of view.
 
 
 
:chuckle: 

 

 

 

 

:GoldenSmile1:

 

216c7991c913f3696dababc95cff0ec5--funny-

 

A really effective rhetorical device we hear a lot in todays world is sarcasm. Most people know what it is, what it feels like, where to direct it; both on the sending and receiving end of things. It can be used as a witty comeback or an avoidance to an uncomfortable situation. It deflects attention away from embarrassing moments and can be used to hide uncomfortable feelings.
 
They are used to express a mocking attitude towards an object, person or an idea. They can be used in a satirical comment with the specific purpose of destroying another's opinion. Sarcasm can be cruel, amusing, pointed, and biting. It is used to dig into anothers emotional center of being. An attack on the spirit.
 
Delivery of Sarcasm is key.
 
There are 7 basic types of tone to consider when employing its biting commentary:
 
Self-Deprecating Sarcasm - Inferior, worthless
Brooding Sarcasm - Polite bitterness
Deadpan Sarcasm - Without emotion
Polite Sarcasm - Delayed effect; listener must think about it to get it.
Obnoxious Sarcasm - The kind that makes a listener wanna crack a skull.
Manic Sarcasm - Delivered with an unnaturally happy mood
Raging Sarcasm - exaggerated violent threats
 
Here's a decent link I've found describing these tones in more detail:
 

 

 

Using these expressions is like a game of Battleship. We use them to lob missles into the inner being of an individual or group. It's a hit and miss kind of thing. But, lo and behold, they can create tremendous results. Especially when a hit is scored. It triggers responses on both sides of the coin. These things can be easily noticed on social sites and media outlets. Attacking the integrity and character instead of the issue being discussed. The age old sophist attitude of win, win, win comes into play. 
 
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Posted 05 September 2017 - 10:22 PM

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Red

Posted 04 September 2017 - 03:34 PM

 

A related term...

 

Polysemy - One word used to describe different things. Also can include phrases, symbolic poetic imagery, and different forms of jargon. Example: Look up the word monster in webster. Then look up the same word in an old law dictionary. Some words have up to 30 meanings. They're meant to hit the senses on a deeper level. They are always done on purpose (this is the main difference between the above related homophones) and are especially used in an historical sense; over time words change their meaning but can still be twisted to serve more than one purpose of meaning.
 
Perhaps this is why it is difficult to teach these in class. It relates to etymology (origins of words) which takes time and study. Worthy study for a greater historical sense in meaning. 
 
Often, judging how Polysemes are related makes them ambiguous and vague in nature. I think this works with all languages in one form or another as problems arise when non-native speakers learn a new language. At least it's seen when learning English. Inside information can be conveyed using this device. 

 

 

:Bump:

 

I found this post about 'twilight language' to be apt:

 

http://forum.chicken...-great/?p=11350


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